Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay about Anxiety Disorder - 1082 Words

Anxiety Disorder What is Anxiety? As defined by Understanding Psychology by Glencoe, Anxiety is a general state of dread or uneasiness that a person feels in response to a real or imagined danger. Anxiety affects 19 million Americans annually and anxiety disorder happens to be the most common mental illness in America. There are many different types of anxiety disorder such as: Panic Disorder, Obsessive – Compulsion Disorder, Phobias, and a few more. Although there is no cure for anxiety disorders, there are treatments to reduce symptoms. Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety disorder that consists of feelings of sudden fear, overwhelming fright, and fear of death. Panic disorder can be inherited, but it can also be the result of†¦show more content†¦However medication should be used only if needed and should be combined with therapy. Obsessive – Compulsion disorder is again another type of anxiety disorder characterized by repeated or uncontrollable thoug hts and compulsions that seem to be impossible to stop or control. People that have OCD often do things such as washing their hands, checking, counting, and cleaning to avoid the obsessive thought. The causes of OCD are still being researched, but OCD is now being associated with neurobiology, but is no longer being associated with childhood experiences. OCD occupies 2 percent of the United States’ population in a given year. However OCD can be linked with other mental and physical disorders such as: depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD,) and some anxiety disorders. Treatment for OCD is no different than any other anxiety disorder. The treatments consist of medication and behavioral therapy. The medication sometimes is not effective but another medication should be tried in the non-effective ones place. Some medications that are used to treat OCD are: clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and paroxetine. Behavio ral therapy is another effective treatment for OCD. Therapist use a method called â€Å"exposure and response prevention.† This method has proven useful in the treatment of OCD patients because the patient is voluntarily put in a situation that could possibly trigger and OCD attack,Show MoreRelatedAnxiety Disorder And Anxiety Disorders1075 Words   |  5 Pagesdefinition for anxiety from a text book stand point. Someone that has or has experienced anxiety would describe it differently. An anxiety problem can be developed through genetics, past life events, and personality. Anxiety can be broken down into six different branches: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety disorder. People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often have increased anxiety over somethingRead MoreAnxiety Disorder And Anxiety Disorders1868 Words   |  8 Pagesof both physical and mental development. Mood disorders are often overlooked during this time for the brain becoming more developed; however among children, anxiety disorders seem to be the most common disorders to be experienced (Nelson; Israel, pg 112). Barlow (2002) defines anxiety as a future-oriented emotion that is characterized by the inability to be in control and predict future events that can be potentially dangerous to the individual. Anxiety shares commonalities with fear, but the differenceRead MoreAnxiety Disorder And Anxiety Disorders2598 Words   |  11 PagesFor a huge amount of people, anxiety is a normal response to everyday stress. It’s a normal emotion that everyone goes through at a certain points in their lives. Many people feel anxious or nervous when facing problems at work, school, etc. A nxiety disorders however, are super different. They can cause such distress that interferes with a person’s ability to live a normal life. Anxiety disorders are the most common psychological disorders in the United States. About 27.6 million people in the URead MoreAnxiety Disorder And Anxiety Disorders1224 Words   |  5 PagesAnxiety is defined as a persistent fear that occurs in the absence of a threat. Anxiety and fear are typical human reactions that can be exaggerated. When an individual’s anxiety interferes with their everyday life, it is then referred to as an anxiety disorder. There are five classes of anxiety disorder, which include: generalized anxiety disorder, phobic anxiety disorder, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. There is not a specific cause to anxietyRead MoreAnxiety Disorders And Anxiety Disorder848 Words   |  4 Pages Everyone in their life time experiences some sort of anxiety. It is that feeling that you get when you are about to take a test or doing a presentation in front of students. But some people, like me, have something worse than just the anxious feeling you get, something called anxiety disorder. It becomes a disorder when that anxious feeling happens frequently and makes you feel uneasy and different Figuring out that I had anxiety took a while, I always felt like I was anxious a lot more than everyoneRead MoreThe Anxiety Disorder ( Anxiety )1126 Words   |  5 Pages A Psychology disorder known as anxiety disorder, is the most common in the United States. In a result of, 18% of 40 million people suffers from anxiety. However, there are six different types of anxiety disorders in the results of stress, depression, social interaction, obsessive compulsive, and phobia. Which characteristic functions as a natural part of life, that can be treated thought several methods. Anxiety is a feeling of numerous of things, whether its danger or a sense of threat andRead MoreThe Anxiety Disorders : Social Anxiety Disorder2032 Words   |  9 PagesClient Goal There are many adolescences that suffer from anxiety that interferes with them performing in the school setting, and often affects their behavior and grades. One of these anxiety disorders is social anxiety disorder, which is â€Å"characterized by significant discomfort and avoidance of social or performance situations† (Ryan Warner, 2012, p. 105). Studies have found that â€Å"recent estimates indicate that 6% of children and 12.1% of adolescents meet criteria for this diagnosis† (Ryan Read MoreAnxiety Disorder3897 Words   |  16 Pageson Anxiety Disorder Jeffrey S. Fletcher, M.A. Kathleen B. Stinger Psychopathology and Counseling, Coun 656 4, May 2014 Author Note Jeffrey S. Fletcher, Student, Liberty University. Correspondence concerning this paper should be addressed to Jeffrey S. Fletcher, Abstract This research paper is designed to review articles and books of professional journals in anxiety disorders, definition of anxiety disorder, review of current and past treatments of anxiety disordersRead MoreState Anxiety And Anxiety Disorders3266 Words   |  14 Pagesincrease in research on anxiety. Ever since, special clinics have been introduced in order to help deal with anxiety disorders. It is suggested that the growth in research is due to anxiety being regarded as one of the most prominent and pervasive emotions, causing distress and negatively affecting large numbers of people. As stated by Rachman (2004), anxiety is described as the experience of unpleasant feelings and the unsettling anticipation of a threatening but vague event. Anxiety can be experiencedRead MoreGeneralized Anxiety Disorder1142 Words   |  5 PagesGeneralized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disorder of shared self-reported symptoms. It goes with tension, uncontrollable worrying, sometimes muscle pain, tro uble sleeping, and irritability that all together impair work ability, relations, and leisure activities. It is a common condition and there are psychological and pharmacological treatment options are available for anxiety disorders but not all patients respond to the same treatment as others. Finding a good treatment can take many months or sometimes

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance Essay - 2223 Words

Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance Harlem Renaissance was undoubtedly a cultural and social-political movement for the African American race. The Renaissance was many things to people, but it is best described as a cultural movement in which the high level of black artistic cultural production, demanded and received recognition. Many African American writers, musicians, poets, and leaders were able to express their creativity in many ways in response to their social condition. Until the Harlem Renaissance, poetry and literature were dominated by the white people and were all about the white culture. One writer in particular, Langston Hughes, broke through those barriers that very few African-American artists had done before this†¦show more content†¦Hughes was a great writer with much diversity in his types of writings. His poetry was a way for us to see a picture of urban life during the Harlem Renaissance, the habits, attitudes, and feelings of his oppressed people . These poems did more than reveal the pain of poverty, it also illustrated racial pride and dignity. â€Å"His main concern was the uplift of his people, whose strengths, resiliency, courage, and humor he wanted to record as part of the general American experience† (Wikipedia, Langston Hughes). Hughes was not ashamed of his heritage and his main theme, â€Å"black is beautiful,† was expressed and shared to the world through his poetry. During the literary movement, music was central to the cultural movement of the Harlem Renaissance, which was a main feature of Hughes’s poetry. He had an important technical influence by his emphasis on folk, jazz, and blues rhythms as the basis of his poetry of racial pride. Hughes used this unique style of writing because it was important to him to have the readers feel and experience what they were reading, â€Å"to recognize the covert rhetoric in lyric means to appreciate the overlap between emotive and discursive poetry . Rooted in song, the lyric reestablishes the ritual of human communion† (Miller 52). The poem that I felt reflected Langston’s lyrical style and expressed the struggles of his people was, â€Å"Trumpet Player†. After reading it many timesShow MoreRelatedThe Harlem Renaissance By Langston Hughes1033 Words   |  5 Pagescalled the Harlem Renaissance. After World War I, many blacks migrated from the south to up to the north to places like Chicago, Detroit and New York. The people in Harlem felt the racial pride and this caught the attention of many musicians, writers, and artist. The Harlem Renaissance period lasted from 1920 to around 1935. Even though this period was short, it still lives on though all African American artists today. According to in the article about Langston Hughes, there wereRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance with Langston Hughes1676 Words   |  7 PagesHarlem Renaissance with Langston Hughes The Harlem Renaissance brought about uniqueness amongst African Americans; everything was new. The visual art, the jazz music, fashion and literature took a cultural spin. During this time writer Langston Hughes seemed to outshine the rest with amazing works. The Harlem Renaissance brought about many great changes. It was a time for expressing the African American culture. It is variously known as the Harlem Renaissance, the Black Literary RenaissanceRead MoreLangston Hughes And The Harlem Renaissance1219 Words   |  5 PagesLangston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance The Harlem renaissance is an artistic revolutionary period that took place between 1917 and 1937. This was after the First World War. Harlem was a district in New York. The Harlem renaissance impacted the social, cultural as well as artistic aspects of the black community. Many black people were encouraged to flee the southern sides where the caste system continued to oppress the black people. At this period, racial inequalities as well as other social injusticesRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance By Langston Hughes Essay1225 Words   |  5 Pages† - Langston Hughes The Harlem Renaissance took place in Harlem, New York during the 1920’s. The movement was an expression of African American culture across the Midwestern and Northeastern states of America, with Harlem being the heart of it. The Harlem Renaissance also left a lasting impression on black writers from the Caribbean and other African Colonies who immigrated to Paris. There were many artists of many different mediums that left a lasting impact of black culture, and Langston HughesRead MoreLangston Hughes And The Harlem Renaissance1909 Words   |  8 PagesThe Harlem Renaissance was a social and cultural movement aimed to alter the conventional notion of â€Å"The Negro† and to expound on African American’s adversities through literature, music, and visual arts. After World War I, Harlem, New York became a central location for African Americans for greener pastures and racial equality. Large quantities of black writers, artists, and intellectuals emerged within the urban scene and played a pivotal role of defining the movement in their respective fieldsRead MoreLangston Hughes And The Harlem Renaissance1736 Words   |  7 PagesAug 2017 The Dream Called Langston As an artist, or literature, music or visual art, there is power in creating pieces that move the masses. For an African American artist in the 1920’s, that power was fought for harder and dimmed due the racial inequalities across America. Being acknowledged as a credible artist was equated to being acknowledged as an American during a time where African American citizens were not considered an equal under the law. The Harlem Renaissance, spanning from the mid 1920’sRead MoreLangston Hughes And The Harlem Renaissance1476 Words   |  6 Pages Langston Hughes, a Voice for the Taciturn Take a time machine back to one of the most culturally-rich times in history, the Modern Age. More specifically, set your destination to northern Manhattan in the early 20s. When you step onto those bustling streets, you’ll find yourself swept up in the Harlem Renaissance. The contemporary writers you are surrounded by are legends such as Langston Hughes and W. E. B. DuBois, and the contemporary musicians you may hear at a local nightclub include some ofRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance By Langston Hughes1703 Words   |  7 Pagesis a quote from a well-known poet by the name of Langston Hughes who served as a prominent figure in African American history and is known for maintaining a significant role in one of the most culturally influential periods for African Americans -The Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance describes a significant era in time where hundreds or artists, writers and musicians living in Harlem came together to form a vibrant, creative community. Hughes along with many other talented and innovative AfricanRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance : Langston Hughes1145 Words   |  5 Pagesplace called Harlem and this is where it all started. Harlem became the training ground for blues and jazz and gave birth to a young generation of Negro Artist, who referred to themselves as the New Negro. The New Negro was the base for an epoch called the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance allowed for the materialization of the double consciousness of the Negro race as demonstrated by artists such as Langston Hughes. During the peak of the Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes created poetryRead MoreLangston Hughes : The Harlem Renaissance1151 Words   |  5 Pagesmass movement of people is called the Great Migration. One of the most popular places African Americans moved to was Harlem, New York. This city was a cultural and artistic polestar for people of color. It became known for the start of the African American cultural and artistic revolut ion known as the â€Å"Harlem Renaissance†. Out of the Renaissance came poet Langston Hughes. Hughes’ grandparents were abolitionists and worked to instill the same sense of justice into him, which can be seen in his writings

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Issai 30 †Code of Ethics Free Essays

ISSAI 30 The International Standards of Supreme Audit Institutions, ISSAI, are issued by the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions, INTOSAI. For more information visit www. issai. We will write a custom essay sample on Issai 30 – Code of Ethics or any similar topic only for you Order Now org INTOSAI Code of Ethics I NT OS AI P r ofe ss i o n a l S t an d ar ds Co m mi t te e PSC-Secretariat Rigsrevisionen †¢ Landgreven 4 †¢ P. O. Box 9009 †¢ 1022 Copenhagen K †¢ Denmark Tel. :+45 3392 8400 †¢ Fax:+45 3311 0415 †¢E-mail: info@rigsrevisionen. dk INTOSAI EXPERIENTIA MUTUA OMNIBUS PRODEST EXPERIENTIA MUTUA OMNIBUS PRODEST INTOSAI General Secretariat – RECHNUNGSHOF (Austrian Court of Audit) DAMPFSCHIFFSTRASSE 2 A-1033 VIENNA AUSTRIA Tel. ++43 (1) 711 71 †¢ Fax: ++43 (1) 718 09 69 E-MAIL: intosai@rechnungshof. gv. at; WORLD WIDE WEB: http://www. intosai. org Table of Contents Chapter 1 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 Chapter 2 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5 Integrity †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 5 Chapter 3 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Independence, Objectivity and Impartiality †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5 Chapter 4 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 Professional Secrecy †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 6 Chapter 5 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 Competence †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 Glossary †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 7 3 Chapter 1 Introduction Concept, Background and Purpose of the Code of Ethics . INTOSAI has deemed it essential to establish an interna tional Code of Ethics for auditors in the public sector. 2. A Code of Ethics is a comprehensive statement of the values and principles which should guide the daily work of auditors. The independence, powers and responsibilities of the public sector auditor place high ethical demands on the SAI and the staff they employ or engage for audit work. A code of ethics for auditors in the public sector should consider the ethical requirements of civil servants in general and the particular requirements of auditors, including the latter’s professional obligations. . With the Lima Declaration of Guidelines on Auditing Precepts 1 as its foundation, the INTOSAI Code of Ethics should be seen as a necessary complement, reinforcing the INTOSAI Auditing Standards issued by the INTOSAI Auditing Standards Committee in June 1992. 4. The INTOSAI Code of Ethics is directed at the individual auditor, the head of the SAI, executive officers and all individuals working for or on behalf of the SAI wh o are involved in audit work. However, the Code should not be interpreted as having any impact on the organisational structure of the SAI. Due to national differences of culture, language, and legal and social systems, it is the responsibility of each SAI to develop its own Code of Ethics which best fits its own environment. Preferably these national Codes of Ethics should clarify the ethical concepts. The INTOSAI Code of Ethics is intended to constitute a foundation for the national Codes of Ethics. Each SAI has the responsibility to ensure that all its auditors acquaint themselves with the values and principles contained in the national Code of Ethics and act accordingly. . The conduct of auditors should be beyond reproach at all times and in all circumstances. Any deficiency in their professional conduct or any improper conduct in their personal life places the integrity of auditors, the SAI that they represent, and the quality and validity of their audit work in an unfavourable light, and may raise doubts about the reliability and competence of the SAI itself. The adoption and application of a code of ethics for aud itors in the public sector promotes trust and confidence in the auditors and their work. . It is of fundamental importance that the SAI is looked upon with trust, confidence and credibility. The auditor promotes this by adopting and applying the ethical requirements of the concepts embodied in the key words Integrity, Independence and Objectivity, Confidentiality and Competence. Trust, Confidence and Credibility 7. The legislative and/or executive authority, the general public and the audited entities are entitled to expect the SAI’s conduct and approach to be above suspicion and reproach and worthy of respect and trust. 8. Auditors should conduct themselves in a manner which promotes co-operation and good relations between auditors and within the profession. The support of the profession by its members and their co-operation with one another are essential elements of professional character. The public confidence and respect which an auditor enjoys is largely the result of the cumulative accomplishments of all auditors, past and present. It is therefore in the interest of auditors, as well as that of the general public, that the auditor deals with fellow auditors in a fair and balanced way. . The legislative and/or executive authority, the general public and the audited entities should be fully assured of the fairness and impartiality of all the SAI’s work. It is therefore essential that there is a national Code of Ethics or similar document which governs the provision of the services. 1 From the IXth Congress of INTOSAI, meeting in Lima. Can be obtained from the INTOSAI General Secretariat in Au stria. 4 10. In all parts of society there is a need for credibility. It is therefore essential that the reports and opinions of the SAI are considered to be thoroughly accurate and reliable by knowledgeable third parties. 11. All work performed by the SAI must stand the test of legislative and/or executive scrutiny, public judgements on propriety, and examination against a national Code of Ethics. Chapter 2 Integrity 12. Integrity is the core value of a Code of Ethics. Auditors have a duty to adhere to high standards of behaviour (e. g. honesty and candidness) in the course of their work and in their relationships with the staff of audited entities. In order to sustain public confidence, the conduct of auditors should be above suspicion and reproach. 13. Integrity can be measured in terms of what is right and just. Integrity requires auditors to observe both the form and the spirit of auditing and ethical standards. Integrity also requires auditors to observe the principles of independence and objectivity, maintain irreproachable standards of professional conduct, make decisions with the public interest in mind, and apply absolute honesty in carrying out their work and in handling the resources of the SAI. Chapter 3 Independence, Objectivity and Impartiality 14. Independence from the audited entity and other outside interest groups is indispensable for auditors. This implies that auditors should behave in a way that increases, or in no way diminishes, their independence. 15. Auditors should strive not only to be independent of audited entities and other interested groups, but also to be objective in dealing with the issues and topics under review. 16. It is essential that auditors are independent and impartial, not only in fact but also in appearance. 17. In all matters relating to the audit work, the independence of auditors should not be impaired by personal or external interests. Independence may be impaired, for example, by external pressure or influence on auditors; prejudices held by auditors about individuals, audited entities, projects or programmes; recent previous employment with the audited entity; or personal or financial dealings which might cause conflicts of loyalties or of interests. Auditors have an obligation to refrain from becoming involved in all matters in which they have a vested interest. 8. There is a need for objectivity and impartiality in all work conducted by auditors, particularly in their reports, which should be accurate and objective. Conclusions in opinions and reports should, therefore, be based exclusively on evidence obtained and assembled in accordance with the SAI’s auditing standards. 19. Auditors should make use of information brought forward by the audited entity and other parties. This information is to be taken into account in the opinions expressed by the auditors in an impartial way. The auditor should also gather information about the views of the audited entity and other parties. However, the auditors’ own conclusions should not be affected by such views. Political neutrality 20. It is important to maintain both the actual and perceived political neutrality of the SAI. Therefore, it is important that auditors maintain their independence from political influence in order to discharge their audit responsibilities in an impartial way. This is relevant for auditors since SAIs work closely with the legislative authorities, the executive or other government entity empowered by law to consider the SAI’s reports. 21. It is important that where auditors undertake, or consider undertaking, political activities they bear in mind the impact which such involvement might have – or be seen to have – on their ability to discharge their professional 5 duties impartially. If auditors are permitted to participate in political activities they have to be aware that these activities may lead to professional conflicts. Conflicts of interest 2. When auditors are permitted to provide advice or services other than audit to an audited entity, care should be taken that these services do not lead to a conflict of interest. In particular, auditors should ensure that such advice or services do not include management responsibilities or powers, which must remain firmly with the management of the audited entity. 23. Audito rs should protect their independence and avoid any possible conflict of interest by refusing gifts or gratuities which could influence or be perceived as influencing their independence and integrity. 4. Auditors should avoid all relationships with managers and staff in the audited entity and other parties which may influence, compromise or threaten the ability of auditors to act and be seen to be acting independently. 25. Auditors should not use their official position for private purposes and should avoid relationships which involve the risk of corruption or which may raise doubts about their objectivity and independence. 26. Auditors should not use information received in the performance of their duties as a means f securing personal benefit for themselves or for others. Neither should they divulge information which would provide unfair or unreasonable advantage to other individuals or organisations, nor should they use such information as a means for harming others. Chapter 4 Pro fessional Secrecy 27. Auditors should not disclose information obtained in the auditing process to third parties, either orally or in writing, except for the purposes of meeting the SAI’s statutory or other identified responsibilities as part of the SAI’s normal procedures or in accordance with relevant laws. Chapter 5 Competence 28. Auditors have a duty to conduct themselves in a professional manner at all times and to apply high professional standards in carrying out their work to enable them to perform their duties competently and with impartiality. 29. Auditors must not undertake work they are not competent to perform. 30. Auditors should know and follow applicable auditing, accounting, and financial management standards, policies, procedures and practices. Likewise, they must possess a good understanding of the constitutional, legal and institutional principles and standards governing the operations of the audited entity. Professional Development 31. Auditors should exercise due professional care in conducting and supervising the audit and in preparing related reports. 32. Auditors should use methods and practices of the highest possible quality in their audits. In the conduct of the audit and the issue of reports, auditors have a duty to adhere to basic postulates and generally accepted auditing standards. 6 How to cite Issai 30 – Code of Ethics, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

A Model of Strategic Nonprofit Human Resource Management

Question: Analyse and evaluate features of national business environments and identify implications for the management of people. Apply and evaluate a range of theories, concepts and approaches relevant to the management of people in an international context. Answer: Four of us have studied together to prepare an investigation into the contemporary issues in the global Human Resource Management. In the cross-cultural group, we are Indian, American, European and Japanese. We have meet outside the university during playing pool and this has helped us to know each other easily. During this meeting, we have decided that we would prepare an assignment on the contemporary issues in the global human resource management. As all of us are engaged in different tasks in our personal life, we have decided to meet every week in a particular poolside to carry on the task. This meeting has helped us to know one another in a more detailed way and this has helped us to carry on our task easily. All of us have divided the task in several parts and we prepare our task accordingly. After meeting every week, we exchange our thoughts and this has helped to make the entire task easy. After going through several presentation style, we have decided to use Prezi for our presentation, as we have found that this style help to make the entire presentation lively. Based in the topic, we have divided our task and these are as follows. Hasan is responsible to make a detailed study on the role of the state as well as the economic development. Bimbo has looked after the legislation and the social factors that play major roles. John has been responsible to gather information on the international labor market and the fourth member of our team is responsible to gain enough information on the Porters factors condition and the technology. Thus, we have divided our task in several parts and this has helped us to make the entire study comparatively easier. In this regard, we have used a social media, i.e. Facebook as the medium to communicate with each other and get to know about the work process. We have exchanged several useful links to each other, as this has helped us to know the flow of our task. Therefore, it can be said that Facebook has helped us largely, as we cannot meet every day to prepare our task. This popular social media site has helped us to exchange several things over internet. After the preparation of the entire task, we have decided to meet one day and edit the entire Prezi as per the requirement. We all have prepared the Prezi differently, now we all have meet to edit the Prezi and this is one of the important parts of the entire preparation. It can be easily said that we have practiced several times together before preparing the Prezi. As already mentioned, it is our first ever topic on the subject and thus we have prepared the entire task keeping in mind the several conditions. We have found that Bimbo possess some leadership quality among four of us and thus, we have given him the responsibility to arrange the meeting date, venue, time and some other important conditions for the preparation of our task. Though it can be said as the responsibility has been divided into all of us equally, we all have the equal position in the entire process and no one has been given special preference. Therefore, it can be easily said that the entire research is unbiased and this has helped to get a good result of the research work. It has been already mentioned that four of us are from four different cultural groups and this might hampered the entire process. However, we all have significantly managed this conflict position in our group and the cross-culture has not affected us. We have successfully communicated with each other an d in spite of the fact that we meet once a week, it has created no problem to prepare our task. During the conduction of the overall study, we all have understood some basic concepts and this is required to discuss here. We have learnt that the approach and the thoughtful required in the employment of the employees for the international assignments largely differ from the customary recruiting efforts needed in the home country surroundings. Therefore, HR of these types of companies is required to consider cultural differences, regulations as well as the language consideration (Akingbola 2012). On the contrary to this situation, we have found that with the help of internet technology, recruiting process for the international assignments has turned out to be easier, as the HR enjoys the access to the international labor market especially in the field of the candidates for professional management assignments (Banfield and Kay 2012). I have seen that the assortment procedure for the international assignments are required to provide a true picture of life along with work and background towards which the selected workers may be assigned. Insofar, we have gathered a certain level of strong understanding on several dimensions as well as complexities that involve the recruitment and selection process of the staffs for the international assignments. The issue has been ranged from international staffing policies, roles of the global managers, reasons for the international assignment to the actual selection process, best practices in international assignments (Cascio and Boudreau 2010). It has been observed that recruitment process starts with the detailed job specification, analysis of the job, interviews as well as the selection (Castrogiovanni and Kidwell 2010). Moreover, major challenges that have been identified as well as highlighted in this particular text are demographic believes, cultural differences, political factors as well as the economic status of the country where these type of firms are located (Ciay sheng and Shua ming 2012). Therefore, it is clear enough to say that the HR managers of seve ral multinational companies face several challenges in case of selection and recruitment process. The entire task has helped me understand the present trends as well as challenges in the global market of the Human Resource Management. The combined study of four of us has helped us to enrich the study and we have prepared the Prezi likewise to get the best result. References Akingbola, K., 2012. A Model of Strategic Nonprofit Human Resource Management. Voluntas, 24(1), pp.214-240. Banfield, P. and Kay, R., 2012. Introduction to human resource management. New York: Oxford University Press. Cascio, W. and Boudreau, J., 2010. Short introduction to strategic human resource management. Castrogiovanni, G. and Kidwell, R., 2010. Human resource management practices affecting unit managers in franchise networks. Human Resource Management, 49(2), pp.225-239. Ciay sheng, W. and Shua ming, Z., 2012. Organizational learning and the complexity of strategic human resource management. Kybernetes, 41(9), pp.1297-1304.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Antigone Essays (457 words) - Antigone, Civil Disobedience, Creon

Antigone Essays (457 words) - Antigone, Civil Disobedience, Creon Antigone Sophocles' trilogy of Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone is a powerful, tragic tale that examines the nature of human guilt, fate and punishment. Creon, Oedipus' uncle and brother-in-law, is the story's most dynamic character. His character experiences a drastic metamorphosis through the span of the three dramas. Creon's vision of a monarch's proper role, his concept of and respect for justice, as well as his respect for the design evolve considerably by the trilogy's tragic conclusion. In Oedipus the King (OK) , the audience is introduced to a Creon who seems to put loyalty to the king above all. He sympathizes with the tragic plight of King Oedipus and asserts no apparent ambition himself. His attitude toward the king is one of yielding and fulfilling reverence. Creon's notion of justice in OK stems directly from the divine. That which the gods have decreed must become law. It pains Creon to have Oedipus exiled, but he must do so as the gods have willed it. Creon's respect for divinity and prophecy seems to be his defining trait in OK. His attitude is one of unquestioning reverence. In Oedipus at Colonus (OC), one sees the beginning of Creon's decline. Creon has now come to occupy the throne that once belonged to Oedipus. It soon becomes apparent that his vision of the proper role of a king has changed to accommodate his new-found position. The emphasis shifts from that of a king who must rule wisely to one who must rule unyieldingly. The kingship becomes a selfserving instrument for Creon in his attempt to secure the return of Oedipus and the good fortune prophesied to accompany him. Creon's notion of justice is severely distorted in OC. He becomes monomaniacal - conducting his affairs with tyranny and belligerence. For example, he threatens to harm Oedipus' daughters if the blind beggar does not return to Thebes. His view of rightness and fairness is no longer in line with that of his subjects. In OC, Creon still retains some respect for divine prophecies. These have after all motivated his desire to return Oedipus to Thebes. Antigone reveals the ultimate extent to which Creon's character deteriorates. His transformation completes itself; he has become an unreasonable tyrant. Creon can no longer be called a king. He has become a despot. There is absolutely no justice to be found. Violence and threats of violence are the tools by which he rules. For example, his senseless threats to an innocent sentry reveal the true extent of his loss of reason. Creon has distorted the proclamation against Polyneices' burial, which was originally intended to foster Theban unity, into a display of rashness and incompetence. There is no mention of the gods and their intentions on Creon's behalf in Antigone. He has been so far destroyed by his own power as to dismiss the divine will that he originally thrived on.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Writing an Engaging Op-Ed Piece

Writing an Engaging Op-Ed Piece Op-Ed is the publishing industrys commonly-used term for opinion editorial – the type of article in which ones opinion is expressed relating to political, public policy, cultural or controversial topics. Op-ed pieces are most often placed near the front of a publication and are treated much the same way as letters to the editor are treated.As with any persuasive writing – and op-ed articles are definitely considered persuasive – the approach you take will be the difference between engaging your audience and alienating your audience. Starting with a hook such as a question is an often-used approach that is effective, and sets the article up nicely to drive your point home.You should keep in mind that the opening paragraph is the best place to state your position and thesis, detailing why you are writing the piece, the news-worthy event that prompted your writing, and the slant you are taking on the topic. Beyond this, the format for the article can be varied, as l ong as you create a valid argument and provide reasonable explanations and points to support it.There are, however, basic things that should be included in an op-ed piece. The three necessary criteria of an engaging op-ed article are that it:Expresses the writers opinionIs written about a timely and news-worthy topicSuggests a course of action that should be taken based on the writers expertise or opinionResearch and valid facts are importantOp-ed writing should always be opinion-based yet factual and you should take the time to carefully research the topic if it is one on which you are not well-versed. However, most op-ed pieces are written by someone who is an expert on the topic, or at least someone who has kept up-to-date on all facts and recent news related to it, so most writers approach this genre only if they are highly aware of the nuances and commonly used terminology relating to the subject. As this genre of writing generally elicits much feedback from a publications read ership, any information that is incorrect will likely be openly and harshly criticized, immediately discrediting the writer. Since many newspapers allow this type of open criticism and dialogue, especially in relation to op-ed pieces (since the writer is most often not affiliated with the newspapers staff), op-ed articles should be carefully fact-checked before you submit them, especially if your purpose is related to marketing and achieving higher visibility for your company or organization.Op-Ed for marketingA brief word on writing op-ed articles for marketing: an engaging op-ed piece is a great way to achieve visibility for a company and can be used as a unique and effective marketing strategy to highlight the companys presence. A CEOs input, written in the form of an op-ed piece on current industry-related topics, will show his or her expertise and unique leadership ability. Most newspapers and publications will also include a tagline with a brief author bio, which serves as fre e and widely read publicity for any company – whether it is a small business or a multi-national corporation.Common mistakes writers makeEspecially if you are writing for marketing purposes, you should avoid some of the common mistakes writers makes when writing op-ed pieces. One of the most common mistakes that a writer will make when attempting to get an op-ed piece published is writing about a topic that is either old news or a weak/non-newsworthy topic. Submitting an op-ed article about current and highly relevant topics/situations is the easiest way to get your work published.Another common mistake is to approach the op-ed piece like a political ad or a public humiliation of key public figures. Especially if you plan to use your op-ed piece for marketing, it is crucial that you provide timely advice that is controversial, yet reasonable. While newspapers will allow some bit of controversy to be present in op-ed pieces because the writer is not associated with the newspap er staff, there is a limit to how far you can take it. You want to be seen as an expert – a voice of reason – and word choice, careful research, and precise editing is crucial in attaining this result. Often humor, insight, and emotional appeals are most effective in engaging your audience while maintaining your status as a concerned expert, and you should attempt these without seeming overly preachy.As with any persuasive topic, it is best to approach the subject through the use of active verbs, ignoring the overuse of adjectives and adverbs, which often tend to water down writing. Your word choice and language used are crucial in maintaining your role as an expert; dont resort to name-calling, unfounded accusations, or highly charged political statements that could be misinterpreted easily by readers.Length and formatThe average op-ed piece is between 400 and 1,200 words, and many newspapers have specific requirements concerning word count. If a publications op-ed re quirements are not listed on their web page, it is wise to contact the editor in charge of op-ed submissions and request information regarding submissions guidelines. Additionally, many newspapers allow op-ed pieces to be submitted via email but might have restrictions concerning whether the article should be included in the body of the email or as an attachment.If the newspaper or publication does not provide specific guidelines for submission of op-ed pieces, a generally accepted format is single-spaced, Times New Roman (or similar) font, with the authors name and the articles word count listed at the top of the page before the title and body of the article. Also, most newspapers prefer that the author include a brief tagline, or bio, written at the end of the piece.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

News media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

News media - Essay Example in Papademas 11), which states that all individuals have the freedom to express and impart opinions using the media as a vehicle to convey their thoughts, even in the presence of boundaries (Papademas 11). Recognizably, people rely on news reports whether on print, television, radio, or the web, when in search of updated information about the happenings in the society. However, the freedom, enjoyed by most journalists now, has turned out to become the cause of some people’s nightmare, and the reason to this is the excessive invasion of privacy by the journalists themselves. Many incidents of privacy invasion are reported every year around the world, and as a consequence, many journalists were sued due to their repeated disrespect. According to Merrill (qtd. in Gordon et al.), seriously considering the idea of privacy for journalists is like committing suicide because the nature of their job is basically to gather and give information, and privacy is always hard to apply in this situation. Hence, if that is the case, then it would be impossible to expect that the invasion of privacy will somehow come to an end at this